Section 1: Properties of Bromine
Reference Source:- Kirk Othmer Encyclopaedia of Chemical Technology 3rd Edition 1978 (Except where otherwise stated).
- Boiling Point: 58.8°C
- Freezing Point: -7.25°C
- Molecular weight: 159.8
|Density of Liquid Bromine (g/ml)|
- Viscosity, 20°C, Centistokes: 0.31 (1)
- Vapour Density (air = 1) at Boiling Point: 5.5 (2)
- Vol Coeff of Expansion (20 – 30°C) 0.0011 per °C
- Vapour Pressure, 175 mmHg (20°C)
- Latent Heat of Vaporisation (Boiling Point) 187 kJ/kg (44.8 cal/g)
- Specific Heat of Liquid (25°C): 0.473 Kj/kg/°C (2) (0.113 cal/g/°C; 18.09 cal/mole/°C)
- Solubility in water at 20°C: 3.41g/100g
- Solubility of water in bromine at 20°C: 34 mg/100g
- Entropy, liquid, cal/mole °K, 25°C: 36.4 (1)
- Dielectric Constant, 10^5 freq., 25°C: 3.33 (1)
- Surface tension, dynes/cm, 58.6°C: 36 (1)
- Flash point: none
- Fire point: none
- Refractive index, 15°C/D: 1.661 (1)
- Compressibility, saturated vapours, PV/RT, 25°C: 0.991 (1)
Two physical properties of bromine can be exploited to reduce evolution of fumes from a spillage, namely its density and its limited solubility in water. Laboratory tests carried out by ICI have indicated that evolution of fumes from liquid bromine caught in a water filled bund or contained and covered by a layer of water from a drenching system is suppressed by 99%.
- Bromine Handling Manual, Albemarle 1995
- Occupational Health Guidelines for Bromine. US Dept of Labour 1978.
- Hildebrand et al.; Journal American Chemical Society 80, 4129 (1958).
The purpose of this document is to provide information and guidance to both bromine users and trained response personnel. The manual contains technical facts, engineering detail, health information and media response data.